Day 2 :
The Virginia Neuroscience Initiative, USA
Keynote: Establishing an Infrastructure That Facilitates New Collaborations in Neuroscience Research and the Conduct of Clinical Trials: The Virginia Neuroscience Initiative
Time : 10:30-11:30
- Neuro-immunology | Neuro-psychiatry | Neuro Pharmaceutics | Neuro Critical Care
Location: Manor Suite
The Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
Title: The story of glatiramer acetate (copaxone) in the treatment of multiple sclerosis - the potential for neuroprotection by immunomodulatory treatment
Time : 11:50-12:20
Rina Aharoni is currently a Senior Staff Scientist in the Department of Immunology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. She has completed her BSc in Biology at Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel and MSc and PhD in Life Sciences at Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. She did Postdoctoral Research at Stanford University, USA. Her main research interests include “Neuro-immunology, autoimmunity, pathology and therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), immunomodulation, neuroprotection and repair processes in the central nervous system, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)”. She has published more than 60 papers and is also an Editorial Board Member of 20 journals.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is currently recognized as complex diseases in which inflammatory reactivity in the central nervous system (CNS) results in demyelination, axonal and neuronal pathology. Treatment strategies thus aim to reduce the detrimental inflammation and induce neuroprotective repair processes. The synthetic copolymer Copaxone (glatiramer acetate, GA), an approved drug for the treatment of MS, is the first and so far the only therapeutic agent to have a copolymer as its active ingredient. Using the animal model of MS - experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the mechanism of action of GA was elucidated. These studies indicated that GA treatment generates immunomodulatory shift from the inflammatory towards the anti-inflammatory pathways, such as Th2-cells that cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) and secrete in situ anti-inflammatory cytokines, as well as T-regulatory cells (Tregs) that suppress the disease. The consequences of GA treatment on the CNS injury inflicted by the disease were studied using immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging. These analyses revealed reduced demyelination and neuro-axonal damages, as well as neuroprotective repair processes such as neurotrophic factors secretion, remyelination and neurogenesis. These combined findings indicate that immunomodulatory treatment can counteract the neurodegenerative disease course, supporting linkage between immunomodulation, neuroprotection and therapeutic activity in the CNS. Recent Publications: 1. R Eilam, M Segal, R Malach, M Sela, R Arnon and R Aharoni (2018) Astrocyte disruption of neurovascular communication is linked to cortical damage in an animal model of multiple sclerosis Glia 66:1098-1117. 2. R Aharoni, C Rosen, E Shezen, D Bar-Lev, O Golan, Y Reisner, M Sela, R Arnon (2016) Assessing remyelination - metabolic labeling of myelin in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neuroimmunology. 301, 7–11. 3. R Aharoni (2015) Remyelination in multiple sclerosis: realizing a long standing challenge. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. 22(41), 1-4. 4. R Aharoni (2015) Animal models of multiple sclerosis: imperfect but imperative Journal of Multiple Sclerosis 2(4), 2-4. 5. RAharoni(2014) Immunomodulation, neuroprotection and remyelination - The fundamental therapeutic effects of glatiramer acetate: A critical review. Journal of Autoimmunity. 54, 81-92.
Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
Title: Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method from urine samples of spondilytis tuberculosis patients in Makassar, Indonesia
Time : 12:20-12:50
Hilary McDonagh is a Psychology Teacher at Sligo College of Further Education. She received Bachelor’s Degree in Hons Psychology from UCD and is a Graduate Member of the Psychological Society of Ireland. She is currently researching on how unconscious tongue positions can be modified to improve posture and functionality.
The frontal aslant tract (FAT) has been a focus neurological research for the last decade. A recent review concentrated on its role in speech language and executive function and highlighted the research gap concerning the Mechanics of the FAT. The ongoing research concerns the mechanics of tongue movement: specifically, lateral tongue movements. Our tongue actually is constantly moving and only slows down to speak. Controlling lateral tongue position involves coordination of inputs from our limbs and our ocular system. As limb, eye and tongue movements all involve homologous brain regions to stop undesired behavior, we must choose between competing actions. Within this system, the eye predicts behavior. A case study encountered as part of my research concerned a 22-year-old with a persistent developmental stutter – since age 6. It was clearly observable that the words on which she predicted a difficulty were accompanied by unusual eye movements and gestures. For the tongue to assume a neutral position I instructed my client to say the words she foresaw difficulty while looking down to her naval. This immediately enabled clear speech and the procedure was replicated with a 6-year-old. Consequently, this highlights the need for more research into tongue movement and the mechanistic functioning of the frontal aslant tract.
Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
Title: The effects of lavender aromatherapy towards academic potential test scores of xii’s class senior high school student in Makassar
Time : 13:20-13:50